It's a consensus that a real good spacing for raspberry plants is 24". Whether it be barefoot, one-year-old canes which are called handles, or potted raspberries which, sure, can cost a bit more, but you can then plant when you can.
If you had done a soil sample already, you could till in the recommended fertilizer ahead of time. Or you could top dress the fertilizer after you plant and let the rains help leach the nutrients in and down towards the root system.
There is absolutely no question, that if the soil is hard and compacted, the raspberries will struggle. You can have the Don Albrecht guarantee on that one.
Janeen and I planted raspberries in a highly compacted area probably 10 years ago or so. She tilled up the area and planted the raspberries in a nice little row.
I took a shovel and dug a round hole and planted them.
Mine did not do so well, hers did, well, what can I say?